When Affirmative Action Was White An Untold History Of Racial Inequality In Twentieth Century America

When Affirmative Action Was White An Untold History Of Racial Inequality In Twentieth Century America

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A groundbreaking work that exposes the twisted origins of affirmative action. In this "penetrating new analysis" (New York Times Book Review) Ira Katznelson fundamentally recasts our understanding of twentieth-century American history and demonstrates that all the key programs passed during the New Deal and Fair Deal era of the 1930s and 1940s were created in a deeply discriminatory manner. Through mechanisms designed by Southern Democrats that specifically excluded maids and farm workers, the gap between blacks and whites actually widened despite postwar prosperity. In the words of noted historian Eric Foner, "Katznelson's incisive book should change the terms of debate about affirmative action, and about the last seventy years of American history."

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Genre : History
Author by : Ira Katznelson
Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
Release : 2006-08-17
File : 272 Pages
ISBN : 9780393347142


The Affirmative Action Puzzle

The Affirmative Action Puzzle

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A rich, multifaceted history of affirmative action from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through today's tumultuous times From acclaimed legal historian, author of a biography of Louis Brandeis ("Remarkable" --Anthony Lewis, The New York Review of Books, "Definitive"--Jeffrey Rosen, The New Republic) and Dissent and the Supreme Court ("Riveting"--Dahlia Lithwick, The New York Times Book Review), a history of affirmative action from its beginning with the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to the first use of the term in 1935 with the enactment of the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) to 1961 and John F. Kennedy's Executive Order 10925, mandating that federal contractors take "affirmative action" to ensure that there be no discrimination by "race, creed, color, or national origin" down to today's American society. Melvin Urofsky explores affirmative action in relation to sex, gender, and education and shows that nearly every public university in the country has at one time or another instituted some form of affirmative action plan--some successful, others not. Urofsky traces the evolution of affirmative action through labor and the struggle for racial equality, writing of World War I and the exodus that began when some six million African Americans moved northward between 1910 and 1960, one of the greatest internal migrations in the country's history. He describes how Harry Truman, after becoming president in 1945, fought for Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practice Act and, surprising everyone, appointed a distinguished panel to serve as the President's Commission on Civil Rights, as well as appointing the first black judge on a federal appeals court in 1948 and, by executive order later that year, ordering full racial integration in the armed forces. In this important, ambitious, far-reaching book, Urofsky writes about the affirmative action cases decided by the Supreme Court: cases that either upheld or struck down particular plans that affected both governmental and private entities. We come to fully understand the societal impact of affirmative action: how and why it has helped, and inflamed, people of all walks of life; how it has evolved; and how, and why, it is still needed.

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Genre : History
Author by : Melvin I. Urofsky
Publisher : Pantheon
Release : 2020
File : 592 Pages
ISBN : 9781101870877


Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action

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Affirmative Action examines the larger structure of institutional white privilege in education, and compares the magnitude of white racial preference with the policies typically envisioned when the term "racial preference" is used. In doing so, the book demonstrates that the American system of education is both a reflection of and a contributor to a structure of institutionalized racism and racial preference for the dominant majority.

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Genre : Education
Author by : Tim J. Wise
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2012-11-12
File : 200 Pages
ISBN : 9781136078422


For Discrimination

For Discrimination

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The Harvard Law School professor and author of the best-selling The Persistence of the Color Line presents an analysis of race in American society that explores its sharply divisive nature while tracing the history of affirmative action and offering insight into related pros and cons. (This book was previously featured in Forecast.) 30,000 first printing.

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Genre : Law
Author by : Randall Kennedy
Publisher : Vintage
Release : 2015
File : 304 Pages
ISBN : 9780307949363


Whitewashing Race

Whitewashing Race

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The myth of a color-blind society is deconstructed in this powerful new look at race in America that consults sociologists, economists, criminologists, political scientists, and legal scholars in the search for answers to why so many white Americans think racism is no longer a problem. (Social Science)

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Genre : History
Author by : Michael K. Brown
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 2003-09-18
File : 338 Pages
ISBN : 9780520237063


White Fragility

White Fragility

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The New York Times best-selling book exploring the counterproductive reactions white people have when their assumptions about race are challenged, and how these reactions maintain racial inequality. In this “vital, necessary, and beautiful book” (Michael Eric Dyson), antiracist educator Robin DiAngelo deftly illuminates the phenomenon of white fragility and “allows us to understand racism as a practice not restricted to ‘bad people’ (Claudia Rankine). Referring to the defensive moves that white people make when challenged racially, white fragility is characterized by emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and by behaviors including argumentation and silence. These behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium and prevent any meaningful cross-racial dialogue. In this in-depth exploration, DiAngelo examines how white fragility develops, how it protects racial inequality, and what we can do to engage more constructively.

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Genre : Social Science
Author by : Robin DiAngelo
Publisher : Beacon Press
Release : 2018-06-26
File : 192 Pages
ISBN : 9780807047422


Divided We Stand

Divided We Stand

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This is a study of how class and race have intersected in American society - above all, in the 'making' and remaking of the American working class in the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Genre : History
Author by : Bruce Nelson
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2002-01-15
File : 388 Pages
ISBN : 0691095345


Not All Black And White

Not All Black And White

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Argues that affirmative action laws are essential to American social justice and racial equality

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Genre : Business & Economics
Author by : Christopher F. Edley
Publisher : Macmillan
Release : 1998-03-04
File : 320 Pages
ISBN : 9780374525415


To Stand And Fight

To Stand And Fight

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The story of the civil rights movement typically begins with the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955 and culminates with the 1965 voting rights struggle in Selma. But as Martha Biondi shows, a grassroots struggle for racial equality in the urban North began a full ten years before the rise of the movement in the South. This story is an essential first chapter, not only to the southern movement that followed, but to the riots that erupted in northern and western cities just as the civil rights movement was achieving major victories. Biondi tells the story of African Americans who mobilized to make the war against fascism a launching pad for a postwar struggle against white supremacy at home. Rather than seeking integration in the abstract, black New Yorkers demanded first-class citizenship--jobs for all, affordable housing, protection from police violence, access to higher education, and political representation. This powerful local push for economic and political equality met broad resistance, yet managed to win several landmark laws barring discrimination and segregation. To Stand and Fight demonstrates how black New Yorkers launched the modern civil rights struggle and left a rich legacy. Table of Contents: Prologue: The Rise of the Struggle for Negro Rights 1 Jobs for All 2 Black Mobilization and Civil Rights Politics 3 Lynching, Northern style 4 Desegregating the metropolis 5 Dead Letter Legislation 6 An Unnatural Division of People 7 Anticommunism and Civil Rights 8 The Paradoxical Effects of the Cold War 9 Racial Violence in the Free World 10 Lift Every Voice and Vote 11 Resisting Resegregation 12 To Stand and Fight Epilogue: Another Kind of America Notes Acknowledgments Illustration Credits Index Reviews of this book: Historians have thoroughly documented the experiences of those African Americans who lived in the South and worked to repeal Jim Crow laws. However, in this work, Biondi explores what she calls 'the struggle for Negro rights' in New York City, an exploration resulting in a stark reminder of the daily challenges facing blacks who lived in northern cities...With its detailed discussions of the American Labor Party, the Communist Party, Black Nationalism, Adam Clayton Powell Jr., W. E. B. Dubois, Roy Wilkins, and, especially, Paul Robeson, this work should be required reading for all historians interested in the post-WW II experience of African Americans in the urban North. --T. D. Beal, Choice Reviews of this book: In this meticulously researched monograph, Biondi reminds the reader that the struggle for black civil rights was waged in the North before it was joined in the South. She documents the fight against racial discrimination in hiring, police brutality, housing segregation, lack of political representation, and inadequate schools in New York City between 1946 and 1954...Biondi's writing is crisp and direct. She introduces the reader to a host of activists whose efforts deserve to be remembered. Unfortunately, most of the causes they championed remain with us today. --Paul T. Murray, MultiCultural Review With stunning research and powerful arguments, Martha Biondi charts a new direction in civil rights history - the northern side of the black freedom struggle. Biondi presents postwar New York as a battleground, no less than the Jim Crow South, for the fight against police brutality and discrimination in employment, housing, retail stores, and places of amusement. Men and women, trade unionists and religious leaders, integrationists and separatists, liberals and the Left come together in this pathbreaking study of America's largest and most cosmopolitan city. --Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham,, editor-in-chief of The Harvard Guide to African-American History To Stand and Fight brilliantly re-writes the history of postwar social movements in New York City. Martha Biondi has not only extended our view of the civil rights movement to the urban North, but she places the movement squarely within an international framework. She redefines the movement, focusing on the specific struggles that mattered: jobs, welfare, housing, police misconduct, political representation, and black people's ongoing battle for independence in the colonies. To Stand and Fight will stand out as a major contribution to an already burgeoning field of civil rights studies. --Robin D. G. Kelley, author of Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination To Stand and Fight establishes that New York was as important a battleground for racial equality as Montgomery or Birmingham. Martha Biondi has done a great service by uncovering the rich and largely forgotten history of New York's role in the African American freedom struggle. --Thomas J. Sugrue, author of The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit

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Genre : History
Author by : Martha BIONDI
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2009-06-30
File : 368 Pages
ISBN : 9780674020955


Invisible Victims

Invisible Victims

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"There is nothing quite like Frederick Lynch's book which describes how affirmative action works in real life, and points to some very disturbing effects." Nathan Glazer, Harvard University

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Genre : Social Science
Author by : Frederick R. Lynch
Publisher : Praeger Pub Text
Release : 1991
File : 237 Pages
ISBN : PSU:000043105618